Chapter 8



8.2.1Legislative and Policy Framework


  • South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 [SASA]



  • National Norms and Standards for School Funding (1998) (SASA 2B: 80 to 124) [NR NSSF]
  • Amended National Norms and Standards for School Funding (Government Gazette 394 in GN 40818 of 28 April 2017) [NR 40818/2017]

8.2.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Capital Works and Maintenance

Capital works refers to the construction of any new building or the extension to existing buildings and can include maintenance and renovations and general repairs to buildings that fall outside the parameters of day-to-day maintenance.

  1. Application Procedures
    • The principal completes the official application form for capital works and renovations and submits it to the District Office.
    • The Provincial Office will do the required technical assessment, administrative viability study and needs verification of the application.
    • Schools will be notified through the District Office of the outcome of the applications.
  2. Capital Cost Applications
    According to National Norms and Standards for School Funding in SASA, there are four categories of capital cost allocations.

    • New classrooms and other construction allocations
      • “New classroom and other construction allocations” include provision for water, electricity, sewage and telephone services on site, and connections to mains services where these are provided to the school site.
        Provincial education departments must budget for this category in terms of their overall budget for education and for schools, and the relative flexibility or rigidity of other budget items.
        The MEC for Education of each province must ensure that there are enough school places to enable each child living in the province to attend school during the compulsory phase.The construction of new schools or additional classrooms and learning facilities should be targeted to the neediest population.  In this expenditure category, “need” is defined in terms of lack of current schools, or overcrowding of existing ones.
      • New hostel facilities may be built if the following criteria are satisfied:
        • the crowding criteria in paragraphs 91–93 of this Act for construction of new schools or extensions; and
        • the transport time and poverty criteria in paragraph 122: “The PED must, in turn, set aside a budget item for hostel subsidies.  Schools with hostels will be paid pro-rata out of this budget for each of their learners:
          (a) whose transport time to the school is greater than 1.5 hours;
          (b)    if there are no available school places near the learner’s parents’ place of residence; and
          (c)     whose parents cannot afford the per-child hostel cost”.
    • Schools will be identified on the basis of need.
      In principle, it would be desirable for all recurrent funding of ordinary public schools, including personnel allocations, to be driven by a simple per-learner-formula that favours the poor. This would be consistent with equity, efficiency, and the vision of schooling implicit in the SASA and Education White Papers 1 and 2. However, another approach is necessary because social conditions and school conditions are massively unequal, provincial administrations and School Governing Bodies have widely varying capacities, and provincial governments have different fiscal competencies.
      Allocations for recurrent cost items must be funded as far as possible on the basis of need, determined according to the condition of the school and the relative poverty of the school community, using the “Resource Targeting Table” (See table below).
      Each PED is required to produce a “Resource Targeting List” of all schools in its province, sorted on the conditions at the school and the poverty of the community served by the school, so as to produce five groups of schools. These will correspond to the “school quintiles, from poorest to least poor” in Column 1 of the Table. Resource allocation will be based on this list.
      The resource targeting list will comprise all ordinary public schools in the province sorted by “need” or “poverty”. Two equally weighted factors will be used to rank the schools:

      • the physical condition, facilities and crowding of the school; and
        Using the School Register of Needs data, Provincial Education Departments may create indices based on the range of physical facilities at the school, learner : classroom ratio, the overall condition and need for repairs, availability of basic services.  This factor is weighted 50%.
      • the relative poverty of the community around the school. Using Census, household survey or other data, Provincial Education Departments may create indices based on, for example, the proportion of households with electricity and piped water in the community served by the school, the level of education of the parents served by the school, and other similar criteria.  This factor is weighted 50%.

        In terms of Paragraph 110 of the NNSSF, the National targets Table published in Government Notice No. 394, Government Gazette No. 40818 of 28 April 2017 is hereby updated to include 2019 target amounts. The no fee threshold will be R1,243 in 2017:

        National table of targets for the school allocation (2017 – 2019)

        2017 2018* 2019*
        NQ1 R1,243 R1,316 R1,394
        NQ2 R1,243 R1,316 R1,394
        NQ3 R1,243 R1,316 R1,316
        NQ4 R623 R660 R699
        NQ5 R215 R228 R241
        No fee threshold R1,243 R1,316 R1,394
        Small schools:
        National fixes
        R28,791 R30,490 R32,289
        *2018 and 2019 figures inflation adjusted – CPI projected inflation rate adjusted
    • Immovable capital improvement and repair costs
      Allocation of this category of costs must be made according to the Resource Targeting Table and the Section 21 list, where applicable.  The following exceptions to the general allocation rules apply:

      • Emergency repairs
        Emergency repairs which endanger the health or safety of persons at or associated with the school, or which might imply large future expenditures if not corrected immediately, must be prioritised in terms of their relative danger or future cost. The Resource Targeting Table will not apply. In general, the Section 21 list will not apply.
      • Routine maintenance and cleanliness
        Functions such as cleaning, removal of litter, maintenance of grounds, minor painting and repairs, and replacement of light-bulbs, will be the responsibility of the school community, regardless of the level of poverty of the community.
      • Thus, non-routine and non-emergency capital improvements and repairs will be allocated according to the Section 21 list and the Resource Targeting Table.  These will probably constitute the majority of the allocations in this category.
    • Easily separable recurrent costs
      • Allocation of these items must be made according to the Resource Targeting Table and the Section 21 list, where applicable.
    • Other recurrent and small capital equipment costs
      The purpose of this allocation is to provide all learners with a minimum package of learning materials (books and stationery). However, if the total provincial budgetary allocation for this item is insufficient, the PED must ensure that priority is given to poorer learners according to the Resource Targeting Table. In this case, the funding per learner remains as per the cost of the basic package, but priority is given to schools highest in the poverty rank order.


Login with your email address and password or register online